Christian Becker-Asano

[B]elievable [A]ndroids

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Publications of C. Becker-Asano

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    Author(s) Title Year Journal / Proceedings / Book BibTeX type Keyword(s)
    Becker, C. Simulation der Emotionsdynamik eines künstlichen humanoiden Agenten 2003 School: University of Bielefeld   mastersthesis affect simulation, virtual humans
    BibTeX:
    @mastersthesis{
      author = {Becker, C.},
      title = {Simulation der Emotionsdynamik eines künstlichen humanoiden Agenten},
      school = {University of Bielefeld},
      year = {2003},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/DA_Komplett.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker, C.; Kopp, S. & Wachsmuth, I. Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents (chapter 3) 2007 Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents Conversational Informatics: An Engineering Approach , pp. 49-68   incollection virtual humans, affect simulation
    Abstract: When building conversational agents that are to take part in social interaction with humans, an important question is whether psychological concepts like emotions or personality of the agents need to be incorporated. In this chapter we argue for the integration of an emotion system into a conversational agent to enable the simulation of having "own emotions". We first clarify the concept of emotions and we discuss different approaches to modeling emotions and personality in artificial systems. Drawing on our work on the multimodal conversational agent Max, we present motives for the integration of emotions as integral parts of an agent's cognitive architecture. Our approach combines different psychological emotion theories and distinguishes between primary and secondary emotions as originating from different levels of this architecture. Exemplary application scenarios are described to show how the agent's believability can be increased by the integration of emotions. In a cooperative setting, Max is employed as a virtual interactive guide in a public computer museum, where his emotion module enhances his acceptance as a coequal conversational partner. We further quote an empirical study that yields evidence that the same emotion module supports the believability and lifelikeness of the agent in a competitive gaming scenario.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{
      author = {Becker, C. and Kopp, S. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Why emotions should be integrated into conversational agents},
      booktitle = {Conversational Informatics: An Engineering Approach},
      publisher = {Wiley},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {49-68},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/WhyEmotionsShouldBeIntegrated.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker, C.; Kopp, S. & Wachsmuth, I. Simulating the emotion dynamics of a multimodal conversational agent 2004 Workshop on Affective Dialogue Systems , pp. 154-165   inproceedings affect simulation, virtual humans
    Abstract: We describe an implemented system for the simulation and visualisation of the emotional state of a multimodal conversational agent called Max. The focus of the presented work lies on modeling a coherent course of emotions over time. The basic idea of the underlying emotion system is the linkage of two interrelated psychological concepts: an emotion axis--representing short-time system states--and an orthogonal mood axis that stands for an undirected, longer lasting system state. A third axis was added to realize a dimension of boredom. To enhance the believability and lifelikeness of Max, the emotion system has been integrated in the agent's architecture. In result, Max's facial expression, gesture, speech, and secondary behaviors as well as his cognitive functions are modulated by the emotional system that, in turn, is affected by information arising at various levels within the agent's architecture.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker, C. and Kopp, S. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Simulating the emotion dynamics of a multimodal conversational agent},
      booktitle = {Workshop on Affective Dialogue Systems},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {154--165},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/ADS04_Springer_LNCS_SimulatingEmotionDynamicsMax.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b98229}
    }
    					
    Becker, C.; Leßmann, N.; Kopp, S. & Wachsmuth, I. Connecting feelings and thoughts - modeling the interaction of emotion and cognition in embodied agents 2006 7th Intl. Conf. on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM-06) , pp. 32-37   inproceedings affect simulation
    Abstract: The integration of emotion and cognition in cognitive architectures for embodied agents is a problem of in- creasing importance. In this paper, we describe how two separate modules for these tasks, as we employ them in our virtual human Max, can influence each other in such an architecture. In the first direction, from cognition to emotion, we present domain-specific as well as more general appraisal mechanisms, as employed in three different interaction scenarios. For domain-independent appraisal the belief-desire-intention model is exploited to derive emotional impulses during the decision process. In the opposite direction, we discuss how emotions can influence cognition either as self-beliefs or as modulators to the decision-making process itself. For the latter, extensions to the BDI-interpreter are proposed.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker, C. and Leßmann, N. and Kopp, S. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Connecting feelings and thoughts - modeling the interaction of emotion and cognition in embodied agents},
      booktitle = {7th Intl. Conf. on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM-06)},
      publisher = {Edizioni Goliardiche},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {32-37},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/ICCM06_ChristianBecker.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker, C.; Nakasone, A.; Prendinger, H.; Ishizuka, M. & Wachsmuth, I. Physiologically interactive gaming with the 3D agent Max 2005 Intl. Workshop on Conversational Informatics , pp. 37-42   inproceedings affect simulation, empathy
    Abstract: Physiologically interactive (or affective) gaming refers to research on the evocation and detection of emotion during game play [21]. In this paper, we first describe the two building blocks of our approach to affective gaming. The building blocks correspond to two independently conducted research strands on affective human-computer interaction: one on an emotion simulation system for an expressive 3D humanoid agent called Max, which was designed at the University of Bielefeld [13, 2]; the other one on a real-time system for empathic (agent) feedback that is based on human emotional states derived from physiological information, and developed at the University of Tokyo and the National Institute of Informatics [19]. Then, the integration of both systems is motivated in the setting of a cards game called Skip-Bo that is played by a human game partner and Max. Physiological user information is used to enable empathic feedback through non-verbal behaviors of the humanoid agent Max. With regard to the new area of Conversational Informatics we discuss the measurement of human physiological activity in game interactions and non-verbal agent behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker, C. and Nakasone, A. and Prendinger, H. and Ishizuka, M. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Physiologically interactive gaming with the 3D agent Max},
      booktitle = {Intl. Workshop on Conversational Informatics},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {37-42},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/PhysiologicallyInteractiveGamingMax.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker, C.; Prendinger, H.; Ishizuka, M. & Wachsmuth, I. Empathy for Max (Preliminary project report) 2005 Intl. Conf. on Active Media Technology (AMT-05) , pp. 541-545   inproceedings affect simulation, empathy
    Abstract: This paper first describes two independently conducted research strands on affective human-computer interaction: one on an emotion simulation system for an expressive 3D humanoid agent called Max, which was designed at the University of Bielefeld [8, 2]; the other one on a real-time system for empathic (agent) feedback that is based on human emotional states derived from physiological information, and developed at the University of Tokyo and the National Institute of Informatics [15]. Then, the integration of both systems is suggested for the purpose of realizing a highly believable agent with empathic qualities.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker, C. and Prendinger, H. and Ishizuka, M. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Empathy for Max (Preliminary project report)},
      booktitle = {Intl. Conf. on Active Media Technology (AMT-05)},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {541-545},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/becker-helmut-amt05.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker, C.; Prendinger, H.; Ishizuka, M. & Wachsmuth, I. Evaluating Affective Feedback of the 3D Agent Max in a Competitive Cards Game 2005 Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction , pp. 466-473   inproceedings affect simulation, empathy
    Abstract: Within the field of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs), the simulation of emotions has been suggested as a means to enhance the believability of ECAs and also to effectively contribute to the goal of more intuitive human-computer interfaces. Although various emotion models have been proposed, results demonstrating the appropriateness of displaying particular emotions within ECA applications are scarce or even inconsistent. Worse, questionnaire methods often seem insufficient to evaluate the impact of emotions expressed by ECAs on users. Therefore we propose to analyze non-conscious physiological feedback (bio- signals) of users within a clearly arranged dynamic interaction scenario where various emotional reactions are likely to be evoked. In addition to its diagnostic purpose, physiological user information is also analyzed online to trigger empathic reactions of the ECA during game play, thus increasing the level of social engagement. To evaluate the appropriateness of different types of affective and empathic feedback, we implemented a cards game called Skip-Bo, where the user plays against an expressive 3D humanoid agent called Max, which was designed at the University of Bielefeld [6] and is based on the emotion simulation system of [2]. Work performed at the University of Tokyo and NII provided a real-time system for empathic (agent) feedback that allows one to derive user emotions from skin conductance and electromyography [13]. The find- ings of our study indicate that within a competitive gaming scenario, the absence of negative agent emotions is conceived as stress-inducing and irritating, and that the integration of empathic feedback supports the acceptance of Max as a co-equal humanoid opponent.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker, C. and Prendinger, H. and Ishizuka, M. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Evaluating Affective Feedback of the 3D Agent Max in a Competitive Cards Game},
      booktitle = {Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {466--473},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/210.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11573548_60}
    }
    					
    Becker, C. & Wachsmuth, I. Modeling primary and secondary emotions for a believable communication agent 2006 Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing , pp. 31-34   inproceedings affect simulation, virtual humans
    Abstract: The integration of emotion and cognition in cognitive architectures for embodied agents is a problem of increasing importance. In this paper, we describe how two separate modules for these tasks, as we employ them in our virtual human Max, can give rise to secondary emotions such as frustration and relief. The BDI-based cognitive module is responsible for appraisal as well as reappraisal of elicited emotions that our conversational agent Max becomes aware of. The emotion dynamics simulation system is driven by the valence information of every emotion and assures a general consistency of the simulated emotions over time by dynamically providing an awareness likelihood for every emotion.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker, C. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Modeling primary and secondary emotions for a believable communication agent},
      booktitle = {Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {31-34},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/becker_wachsmuth_ki2006.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker, C. & Wachsmuth, I. Playing the Cards Game SkipBo against an Emotional Max 2006 Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing , pp. 65   inproceedings affect simulation, virtual humans
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker, C. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Playing the Cards Game SkipBo against an Emotional Max},
      booktitle = {Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {65},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/becker_wachsmuth_demo.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. WASABI for affect simulation in human-computer interaction: Architecture description and example applications 2013 Proc. of ERM4HCI workshop in conj. with ICMI2013   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C.},
      title = {WASABI for affect simulation in human-computer interaction: Architecture description and example applications},
      booktitle = {Proc. of ERM4HCI workshop in conj. with ICMI2013},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2013}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. Invited Commentary: On Guiding the Design of an Ill-defined Phenomenon 2011 Intl. Journal of Synthetic Emotions
    Vol. 2 (2) , pp. 66-67  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C.},
      title = {Invited Commentary: On Guiding the Design of an Ill-defined Phenomenon},
      journal = {Intl. Journal of Synthetic Emotions},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {66-67},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/Hudlicka_commentary.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/jse.2011070104}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. Affective Computing combined with Android Science 2011 KI - Künstliche Intelligenz
    Vol. 25 , pp. 245-250 (10.1007/s13218-011-0116-9) 
    article android science
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C.},
      title = {Affective Computing combined with Android Science},
      journal = {KI - Künstliche Intelligenz},
      publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {25},
      pages = {245-250},
      note = {10.1007/s13218-011-0116-9},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/AffectiveComputingCombinedWithAndroidScience_KI2011_printVersion.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13218-011-0116-9}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. WASABI: Affect Simulation for Agents with Believable Interactivity 2008 School: Faculty of Technology, University of Bielefeld (IOS Press (DISKI 319))  phdthesis affect simulation
    Abstract: This publication presents the WASABI architecture (WASABI Affect Simulation for Agents with Believable Interactivity), a computational architecture for an emotionally believable agent that is based on established constructs and empirical evidence from the affective sciences. In contrast to most other approaches to modeling emotions, the idea of an emotion dynamics in three-dimensional affect space is central to the WASABI architecture, which naturally sustains mood congruency of emotions. Furthermore, the distinction between primary, onto-genetically earlier types of emotions and secondary, cognitively elaborated emotions is followed, both influencing the agent's bodily emotion dynamics. As a result, this architecture is not only more believable for interactants with an agent but also for theorists from other disciplines concerned about emotion. (click here for more information.)
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C.},
      title = {WASABI: Affect Simulation for Agents with Believable Interactivity},
      school = {Faculty of Technology, University of Bielefeld},
      year = {2008},
      note = {IOS Press (DISKI 319)},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/Becker-Asano_WASABI_Thesis.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Arras, K.; Nebel, B. & Ishiguro, H. The Effect of Anthropomorphism on Social Tele-Embodiment 2012 IROS 2012 Workshop on Human-Agent Interaction   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {C. Becker-Asano and K.O. Arras and B. Nebel and H. Ishiguro},
      title = {The Effect of Anthropomorphism on Social Tele-Embodiment},
      booktitle = {IROS 2012 Workshop on Human-Agent Interaction},
      year = {2012},
      url = {http://srl.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publicationsdir/beckerasanoIROSWS12.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Gustorff, S.; Arras, K.O.; Ogawa, K.; Nishio, S.; Ishiguro, H. & Nebel, B. Robot Embodiment, Operator Modality, and Social Interaction in Tele-Existence: A Project Outline 2013 Proc. of Intl. Conf. on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI2013) , pp. 79-80   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {C. Becker-Asano and S. Gustorff and Kai O. Arras and K. Ogawa and S. Nishio and H. Ishiguro and B. Nebel},
      title = {Robot Embodiment, Operator Modality, and Social Interaction in Tele-Existence: A Project Outline},
      booktitle = {Proc. of Intl. Conf. on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI2013)},
      year = {2013},
      pages = {79-80}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. & Ishiguro, H. Intercultural differences in decoding facial expressions of the android robot Geminoid F 2011 Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing Research
    Vol. 1 (3) , pp. 215-231  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Intercultural differences in decoding facial expressions of the android robot Geminoid F},
      journal = {Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing Research},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {1},
      number = {3},
      pages = {215-231},
      url = {http://jaiscr.eu/issues/jaiscr_vol1_no3_2011.pdf#page=35}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. & Ishiguro, H. Inter-cultural differences in the evaluation of an android's facial display of emotions 2011 Bi-annual meeting of the International Society for Research on Emotion (ISRE) (poster)  inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Inter-cultural differences in the evaluation of an android's facial display of emotions},
      booktitle = {Bi-annual meeting of the International Society for Research on Emotion (ISRE)},
      year = {2011},
      note = {poster}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. & Ishiguro, H. Evaluating facial displays of emotion for the android robot Geminoid F 2011 IEEE SSCI Workshop on Affective Computational Intelligence , pp. 22-29   inproceedings android science
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Evaluating facial displays of emotion for the android robot Geminoid F},
      booktitle = {IEEE SSCI Workshop on Affective Computational Intelligence},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {22-29},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/Becker-Asano_Ishiguro_WACI2011.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. & Ishiguro, H. Laughter in Social Robotics - no laughing matter 2009 Intl. Workshop on Social Intelligence Design (SID2009) , pp. 287-300   inproceedings social robotics, laughter
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Laughter in Social Robotics -- no laughing matter},
      booktitle = {Intl. Workshop on Social Intelligence Design (SID2009)},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {287-300},
      url = {SID09_LaughterInSocialRoboticsCameraReady.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Kanda, T.; Ishi, C. & Ishiguro, H. Studying laughter combined with two humanoid robots 2011 AI & Society
    Vol. 26 (3) , pp. 291-300  
    article social robotics
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Kanda, T. and Ishi, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Studying laughter combined with two humanoid robots},
      journal = {AI & Society},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {291-300},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/Becker-Asano_et_al-AISoc-prepress.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00146-010-0306-2}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Kanda, T.; Ishi, C. & Ishiguro, H. Humanoid robots laughing in response to a joke: Results of a video-based online survey 2009 Interdisciplinary Workshop on Laughter and other Interactional Vocalisations in Speech   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Kanda, T. and Ishi, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Humanoid robots laughing in response to a joke: Results of a video-based online survey},
      booktitle = {Interdisciplinary Workshop on Laughter and other Interactional Vocalisations in Speech},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.coli.uni-saarland.de/conf/laughter-09/files/Becker-Asano_et_al.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Kanda, T.; Ishi, C. & Ishiguro, H. How about laughter? Perceived naturalness of two laughing humanoid robots 2009 Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction , pp. 49-54   inproceedings social robotics, laughter
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Kanda, T. and Ishi, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {How about laughter? Perceived naturalness of two laughing humanoid robots},
      booktitle = {Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {49-54},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/HowAboutLaughter_ACII2009.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Kopp, S.; Pfeiffer-Leßmann, N. & Wachsmuth, I. Virtual Humans Growing up: From Primary Toward Secondary Emotions 2008 KI Zeitschift (German Journal of Artificial Intelligence)
    Vol. 1 , pp. 23-27  
    article virtual humans, affect simulation
    Abstract: In order to understand and model the role of emotion in cognitive processes we attempt to integrate theoretical approaches originating from different disciplines in an implemented cognitive architecture for embodied agents. Our virtual humanoid agent Max employs this architecture to generate believable human-like behaviors in a variety of situational contexts. In this article, we describe how we go about endowing Max’s architecture with increasingly elaborated kinds of emotions – from primary emotions like happiness and fear, toward secondary emotions like hope and relief.
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Kopp, S. and Pfeiffer-Leßmann, N. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Virtual Humans Growing up: From Primary Toward Secondary Emotions},
      journal = {KI Zeitschift (German Journal of Artificial Intelligence)},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {23-27},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/KIFachbeitrag_BeckerKoppLessmannWachsmuth_Manuscript.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Nishio, S.; Ogawa, K. & Ishiguro, H. Exploring the Uncanny Valley with Geminoid HI-1 in a real-world application 2010 IADIS Intl. Conf. on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction , pp. 121-128   inproceedings android science
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Nishio, S. and Ogawa, K. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Exploring the Uncanny Valley with Geminoid HI-1 in a real-world application},
      booktitle = {IADIS Intl. Conf. on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {121-128},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/IHCI2010_Becker-Asano_et_al.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Stahl, P.; Ragni, M.; Martin, J.-C.; Courgeon, M. & Nebel, B. An affective virtual agent providing embodied feedback in the paired associate task: system design and evaluation 2013 Proc. of the 13th. Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA 2013) , pp. 406-415   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Stahl, P. and Ragni, M. and Martin, J.-C. and Courgeon, M. and Nebel, B.},
      title = {An affective virtual agent providing embodied feedback in the paired associate task: system design and evaluation},
      booktitle = {Proc. of the 13th. Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA 2013)},
      year = {2013},
      pages = {406-415}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Sun, D.; Kleim, B.; Scheel, C.N.; Tuschen-Caffier, B. & Nebel, B. Outline of an Empirical Study on the Effects of Emotions on Strategic Behavior in Virtual Emergencies 2011
    Vol. 6975 Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction , pp. 508-517  
    inproceedings virtual humans
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {C. Becker-Asano and D. Sun and B. Kleim and C. N. Scheel and B. Tuschen-Caffier and B. Nebel},
      title = {Outline of an Empirical Study on the Effects of Emotions on Strategic Behavior in Virtual Emergencies},
      booktitle = {Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {6975},
      pages = {508--517},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/OutlineACII2009.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Sun, D.; Kleim, B.; Scheel, C.N.; Tuschen-Caffier, B. & Nebel, B. CoVE: Coping in Virtual Emergencies 2011 Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing , pp. 1 (demo abstract)  inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Sun, D. and Kleim, B. and Scheel,C. N. and Tuschen-Caffier, B. and Nebel, B.},
      title = {CoVE: Coping in Virtual Emergencies},
      booktitle = {Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {1},
      note = {demo abstract},
      url = {https://www.becker-asano.de/CoVE_KI2011_DemoAbstract.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C.; Sun, D.; Scheel, C.N.; Tuschen-Caffier, B. & Nebel, B. Analyzing for emotional arousal in HMD-based head movements during a virtual emergency 2013 Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing in conj. with KI2013 , pp. 34-43   inproceedings affect detection
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {C. Becker-Asano and D. Sun and C. N. Scheel and B. Tuschen-Caffier and B. Nebel},
      title = {Analyzing for emotional arousal in HMD-based head movements during a virtual emergency},
      booktitle = {Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing in conj. with KI2013},
      year = {2013},
      pages = {34-43}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. & Wachsmuth, I. Affect Simulation with Primary and Secondary Emotions 2008 Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA 08) , pp. 15-28   inproceedings affect simulation
    Abstract: In this paper the WASABI1 Affect Simulation Architecture is introduced, in which a virtual human’s cognitive reasoning capabilities are combined with simulated embodiment to achieve the simulation of primary and secondary emotions. In modeling primary emotions we follow the idea of “Core Affect” in combination with a continuous progression of bodily feeling in three-dimensional emotion space (PAD space), that is only subsequently categorized into discrete emotions. In humans, primary emotions are understood as onto-genetically earlier emotions, which directly influence facial expressions. Secondary emotions, in contrast, afford the ability to reason about current events in the light of experiences and expectations. By technically representing aspects of their connotative meaning in PAD space, we not only assure their mood-congruent elicitation, but also combine them with facial expressions, that are concurrently driven by the primary emotions. An empirical study showed that human players in the Skip-Bo scenario judge our virtual human MAX significantly older when secondary emotions are simulated in addition to primary ones.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Affect Simulation with Primary and Secondary Emotions},
      booktitle = {Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA 08)},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {15-28},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/IVA08_Becker-Asano_Wachsmuth.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85483-8_2}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. & Wachsmuth, I. WASABI as a case study of how misattribution of emotion can be modelled computationally 2010 A Blueprint for Affective Computing: a Sourcebook and Manual , pp. 179-193   incollection affect simulation
    Abstract: Cognitive scientists, psychologists, neuro-biologists, and computer scientists achieved significant progress in understanding and modelling the fuzzy concept ‘emotion’ and more general ‘affect’. Accordingly, a variety of computational realizations, discussed by Marsella, Gratch, and Petta in Chapter X of this volume, stem from a number of different psychological theories and philosophical conceptions. As correctly classified in Chapter X the computational realization we propose, labelled WASABI ([W]ASABI [A]ffect [S]imulation for [A]gents with [B]elievable [I]nteractivity), performs a mapping of appraisal outcome into a three dimensional space of pleasure, arousal, and dominance or PAD space in short, and it thereby ‘breaks the link’ between the internal representation of affect and its external domain object. Accordingly, we will present and discuss here, how the phenomenon of post-hoc misattribution, i.e., a mismatch between an emotion’s objective and its subjective cause, can be modelled and explained by the WASABI architecture.
    The central idea of this architecture is to combine two dimensions, namely emotional valence and valence of mood, such that their mutual influence generates a continuously changing, self-rebalancing internal state, which can be interpreted as constituting a very basic, non-relational, short-term memory of affect. Whenever some external or internal event (the latter, for example, resulting from cognitive reasoning processes) is appraised as having an emotional effect, this effect is translated into an impulse of emotional valence, which then disturbs the internal emotion dynamics. At the same time internal cognitive reasoning further analyzes the event to determine, if it is a candidate for elicitation of an emotion. In the current state of the architecture this reasoning is limited to the generation and checking of expectations within the context of a well-defined interaction scenario serving as proof of concept. The emotions are represented in PAD space such that a particular emotion can only be elicited (or in more philosophical terms ‘become aware to the agent’) if the agent’s current internal feeling state represented in PAD space allows for it.
    Although this architecture is already considerably complex, we admit that this is only our first attempt to grapple with the complex dynamic interplay of cognitive and bodily processes from which emotions are assumed to arise. Accordingly, we hope that the WASABI architecture, on the one hand, provides fruitful impulses to the interdisciplinary endeavour of understanding human emotionality, and, on the other hand, can serve as one example of a blueprint for how to increase a conversational agent’s affective competency.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {WASABI as a case study of how misattribution of emotion can be modelled computationally},
      booktitle = {A Blueprint for Affective Computing: a Sourcebook and Manual},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {179-193},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/Becker-Asano_WASABI_Blueprint_draft.pdf}
    }
    					
    Becker-Asano, C. & Wachsmuth, I. Affective computing with primary and secondary emotions in a virtual human 2010 Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
    Vol. 20 (1) , pp. 32-49  
    article affect simulation
    Abstract: We introduce the WASABI ([W]ASABI [A]ffect [S]imulation for [A]gents with [B]elievable [I]nteractivity) Affect Simulation Architecture, in which a virtual human’s cognitive reasoning capabilities are combined with simulated embodiment to achieve the simulation of primary and secondary emotions. In modeling primary emotions we follow the idea of “Core Affect” in combination with a continuous progression of bodily feeling in three-dimensional emotion space (PAD space), that is subsequently categorized into discrete emotions. In humans, primary emotions are understood as onto-genetically earlier emotions, which directly influence facial expressions. Secondary emotions, in contrast, afford the ability to reason about current events in the light of experiences and expectations. By technically representing aspects of each secondary emotion’s connotative meaning in PAD space, we not only assure their mood-congruent elicitation, but also combine them with facial expressions, that are concurrently driven by primary emotions. Results of an empirical study suggest that human players in a card game scenario judge our virtual human MAX significantly older when secondary emotions are simulated in addition to primary ones.
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Becker-Asano, C. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Affective computing with primary and secondary emotions in a virtual human},
      journal = {Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {32-49},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/AffectiveComputingWithPrimaryAndSecondaryEmotionsInAVirtualHuman.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10458-009-9094-9}
    }
    					
    Boukricha, H.; Becker, C. & Wachsmuth, I. Simulating Empathy for the Virtual Human Max 2007 2nd Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing , pp. 22-27   inproceedings affect simulation, empathy
    Abstract: Addressing user’s emotions in human-computer interaction significantly enhances the believability and lifelikeness of virtual humans. Emotion recognition and interpretation is realized in our approach by integrating empathy as a designated process within the agent’s cognitive architecture. In this paper we describe this empathy process which comprises of two interconnected components: a belief-desire-intention (BDI) based cognitive component and an affective component based on the emotion simulation system of the virtual human Max. The application and a preliminary evaluation of this empathy system are reported on in the context of a 3D competitive card game scenario.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Boukricha, H. and Becker, C. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {Simulating Empathy for the Virtual Human Max},
      booktitle = {2nd Intl. Workshop on Emotion and Computing},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {22-27},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/boukricha_becker_wachsmuth_ki2007.pdf}
    }
    					
    Cooney, M.D.; Becker-Asano, C.; Kanda, T.; Alissandrakis, A. & Ishiguro, H. Full-body Gesture Recognition Using Inertial Sensors for Playful Interaction with Small Humanoid Robot 2010 Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , pp. 2276-2282   inproceedings social robotics
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Cooney, M. D. and Becker-Asano, C. and Kanda, T. and Alissandrakis, A. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Full-body Gesture Recognition Using Inertial Sensors for Playful Interaction with Small Humanoid Robot},
      booktitle = {Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
      publisher = {IEEE},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {2276-2282}
    }
    					
    Duval, S.; Becker, C. & Hashizume, H. Privacy Issues for the Disclosure of Emotions to Remote Acquaintances without Simultaneous Communication 2007 12th Intl. Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction , pp. 82-91   inproceedings affect simulation
    Abstract: We discuss the privacy issues related to the design of systems that disclose information about emotions to remote acquaintances, without simultaneous communication: users do not chat, see or hear each other. We consider the acquisition of information, storage, processing, multi-modal rendering, and interactions. We illustrate our points with the system we designed for affective bonding and support with family and friends. Our most significant contribution is the provision of a first overview of the whole process for everyday life uses.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Duval, S. and Becker, C. and Hashizume, H.},
      title = {Privacy Issues for the Disclosure of Emotions to Remote Acquaintances without Simultaneous Communication},
      booktitle = {12th Intl. Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {82-91},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/2007-07-22_hcii_privacy-emotions-no-comm.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73279-2_10}
    }
    					
    Embgen, S.; Luber, M.; Becker-Asano, C.; Ragni, M.; Evers, V. & Arras, K.O. Robot-Specific Social Cues in Emotional Body Language 2012 Proc. IEEE Intl. Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN'12) , pp. 1019 -1025   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {S. Embgen and M. Luber and C. Becker-Asano and M. Ragni and V. Evers and Kai O. Arras},
      title = {Robot-Specific Social Cues in Emotional Body Language},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Intl. Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN'12)},
      year = {2012},
      pages = {1019 -1025},
      url = {http://srl.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/publicationsdir/embgenROMAN12.pdf}
    }
    					
    Hartmann, K.; Böck, R.; Becker-Asano, C.; Gratch, J.; Schuller, B. & Scherer, K.R. ERM4HCI 2013: the 1st workshop on emotion representation and modelling in human-computer-interaction-systems 2013 Proceedings of the 15th ACM on International conference on multimodal interaction , pp. 607-608   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Hartmann, Kim and Böck, Ronald and Becker-Asano, Christian and Gratch, Jonathan and Schuller, Björn and Scherer, Klaus R},
      title = {ERM4HCI 2013: the 1st workshop on emotion representation and modelling in human-computer-interaction-systems},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th ACM on International conference on multimodal interaction},
      year = {2013},
      pages = {607--608}
    }
    					
    Hofstaetter, A.; Grammer, K.; Hasse, K.; Becker-Asano, C. & Wachsmuth, I. How Emma learned to smile and frown. The implementation of the facial action coding system in an avatar 2008 XIX Biennial Conf. of the Intl. Society for Human Ethology , pp. 137-138   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Hofstaetter, A. and Grammer, K. and Hasse, K. and C. Becker-Asano and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {How Emma learned to smile and frown. The implementation of the facial action coding system in an avatar},
      booktitle = {XIX Biennial Conf. of the Intl. Society for Human Ethology},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {137-138},
      url = {http://media.anthro.univie.ac.at/ishe/index.php/bulletin/bulletin-contents/doc_view/8-ishe-2008-abstracts}
    }
    					
    Hudlicka, E.; Payr, S.; Ventura, R.; Becker-Asano, C.; Fischer, K.; Leite, I.; Paiva, A. & von Scheve, C. Social interaction with robots and agents: Where do we stand, Where do we go? 2009 Affective Compting and Intelligent Interaction , pp. 698-703   inproceedings social robotics
    Abstract: Robots and agents are becoming increasingly prominent in everyday life, taking on a variety of roles, including helpers, coaches, and even social companions. A core requirement for these social agents is the ability to establish and maintain long-term trusting and engaging relationship with their human users. Much research has already been done on the prerequisites for these types of social agents and robots, in affective computing, social computing and affective HCI. A number of disciplines within psychology and the social sciences are also relevant, contributing theories, data and methods relevant for the emerging areas of social robotics, and social computing in general. However, the complexity of the task of designing these social agents, and the diversity of the relevant disciplines, can be overwhelming. This paper presents a summary of a special session at ACII 2009 whose purpose was to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in social agents and robots, and to explore some of the fundamental questions regarding their development, and the evaluation of their effectiveness.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Hudlicka, E. and Payr, S. and Ventura, R. and Becker-Asano, C. and Fischer, K. and Leite, I. and Paiva, A. and von Scheve,C.},
      title = {Social interaction with robots and agents: Where do we stand, Where do we go?},
      booktitle = {Affective Compting and Intelligent Interaction},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {698-703},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/ACII2009PanelContrib.pdf}
    }
    					
    Kiryazov, K.; Lowe, R.; Becker-Asano, C.; Montebelli, A. & Ziemke, T. From the Virtual to the Robotic: Bringing Emoting and Appraising Agents into Reality 2011 Procedia Computer Science
    Vol. 7 (0) , pp. 241 - 243  
    article
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Kiryazov, K. and Lowe, R. and Becker-Asano, C. and Montebelli, A. and Ziemke, T.},
      title = {From the Virtual to the Robotic: Bringing Emoting and Appraising Agents into Reality},
      journal = {Procedia Computer Science},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {7},
      number = {0},
      pages = {241 - 243},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050911006429},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2011.09.082}
    }
    					
    Kiryazov, K.; Lowe, R.; Becker-Asano, C. & Randazzo, M. The Role of Arousal in Two-Resource Problem Tasks for Humanoid Service Robots 2013 Proc. IEEE Intl. Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN'13) , pp. 62-69   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Kiryazov, K. and Lowe, R. and Becker-Asano, C. and Randazzo, M.},
      title = {The Role of Arousal in Two-Resource Problem Tasks for Humanoid Service Robots},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Intl. Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN'13)},
      year = {2013},
      pages = {62-69}
    }
    					
    Kleim, B.; Ehring, T.; Scheel, C.N.; Becker-Asano, C.; Nebel, B. & Tuschen-Caffier, B. Bewältigungsverhalten in Notfallsituationen aus klinisch-psychologischer Perspektive 2012 Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie
    Vol. 41 (3) , pp. 166-179  
    article
    Abstract: The present report provides a review of human responses to emergency situations or potentially traumatic events (PTE). The identification of specific reactions to PTEs that turn out to be adaptive in later psychological or biological reactions is crucial for prevention and intervention efforts. First, we will review common reactions to trauma and psychopathological responses, including a brief review of prevalence rates and predictors of psychopathology following PTEs with focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (one of the main anxiety disorders following trauma--see Becker-Nehring, Witschen & Bengel for a review of other mental disorders in this issue). Secondly, we will discuss the findings related to peritraumatic and posttraumatic reactions, i.e., reactions that take place either during or after the PTE. Some of these processes can be examined and potentially manipulated in the laboratory, for instance with methods of virtual reality, which is also part of this report. A good understanding of the relationship between key peritraumatic and posttraumatic reactions and later psychopathology is of vital importance for the development and implementation of prevention and intervention strategies, which will be discussed at the end of the report.
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {B. Kleim and T. Ehring and C. N. Scheel and C. Becker-Asano and B. Nebel and B. Tuschen-Caffier},
      title = {Bewältigungsverhalten in Notfallsituationen aus klinisch-psychologischer Perspektive},
      journal = {Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {166-179},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1026/1616-3443/a000155}
    }
    					
    Kopp, S.; Becker, C. & Wachsmuth, I. The Virtual Human Max - Modeling Embodied Conversation 2006 KI 2006 - Demo Presentation, Extended Abstracts , pp. 21-24   inproceedings virtual humans
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Kopp, S. and Becker, C. and Wachsmuth, I.},
      title = {The Virtual Human Max - Modeling Embodied Conversation},
      booktitle = {KI 2006 - Demo Presentation, Extended Abstracts},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {21-24},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/KI06-ExtendedAbstract.pdf}
    }
    					
    Krämer, N.; Kopp, S.; Becker-Asano, C. & Sommer, N. Smile and the world will smile with you--The effects of a virtual agent's smile on users' evaluation and behavior 2013 Intl. Journal of Human-Computer Studies
    Vol. 71 (3) , pp. 335 - 349  
    article embodied conversational agents
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {N. Krämer and S. Kopp and C. Becker-Asano and N. Sommer},
      title = {Smile and the world will smile with you---The effects of a virtual agent's smile on users' evaluation and behavior},
      journal = {Intl. Journal of Human-Computer Studies},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {71},
      number = {3},
      pages = {335 - 349},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1071581912001693},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.09.006}
    }
    					
    von der Pütten, A.M.; Becker-Asano, C.; Ogawa, K.; Nishio, S. & Ishiguro, H. Exploration and Analysis of People's Nonverbal Behavior Towards an Android 2012 Proc. of the Annual meeting of the International Communication Association   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {von der Pütten, A. M. and Becker-Asano, C. and Ogawa, K. and Nishio, S. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {Exploration and Analysis of People's Nonverbal Behavior Towards an Android},
      booktitle = {Proc. of the Annual meeting of the International Communication Association},
      year = {2012}
    }
    					
    von der Pütten, A.M.; Krämer, N.C.; Becker-Asano, C. & Ishiguro, H. An Android in the Field 2011 ACM/IEEE Intl. Conf. on Human-Robot Interaction , pp. 283-284   inproceedings android science
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {von der Pütten, A. M. and Krämer, N. C. and Becker-Asano, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {An Android in the Field},
      booktitle = {ACM/IEEE Intl. Conf. on Human-Robot Interaction},
      year = {2011},
      pages = {283-284},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/AnAndroidInTheField.pdf}
    }
    					
    von der Pütten, A.M.; Krämer, N.C.; Becker-Asano, C. & Ishiguro, H. An Android in the field. How people react towards Geminoid HI-1 in a real world scenario 2011 Proc. of the 7th Conf. of the Media Psychology Division of the German Psychological Society   inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {von der Pütten, A. M. and Krämer, N. C. and Becker-Asano, C. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {An Android in the field. How people react towards Geminoid HI-1 in a real world scenario},
      booktitle = {Proc. of the 7th Conf. of the Media Psychology Division of the German Psychological Society},
      year = {2011}
    }
    					
    Prendinger, H.; Becker, C. & Ishizuka, M. A study in users' physiological response to an empathic interface agent 2006 Intl. Journal of Humanoid Robotics
    Vol. 3 (3) , pp. 371-391  
    article affect simulation, empathy
    Abstract: This paper presents a novel method for evaluating the impact of animated interface agents with affective and empathic behavior. While previous studies relied on questionnaires in order to assess the user's overall experience with the interface agent, we will analyze users' physiological response (skin conductance and electromyography), which allows us to estimate affect-related user experiences on a moment-by-moment basis without interfering with the primary interaction task. As an interaction scenario, a card game has been implemented where the user plays against a virtual opponent. The findings of our study indicate that within a competitive gaming scenario, (i) the absence of the agent's display of negative emotions is conceived as arousing or stress-inducing, and (ii) the valence of users' emotional response is congruent with the valence of the emotion expressed by the agent. Our results for skin conductance could also be reproduced by assuming a local rather than a global baseline.
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Prendinger, H. and Becker, C. and Ishizuka, M.},
      title = {A study in users' physiological response to an empathic interface agent},
      journal = {Intl. Journal of Humanoid Robotics},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {371-391},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/IJHR-06PrendingerBeckerIshizuka.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219843606000801}
    }
    					
    Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A.M.; Krämer, N.C.; Becker-Asano, C.; Ogawa, K.; Nishio, S. & Ishiguro, H. The uncanny in the wild. Analysis of unscripted human-android interaction in the field 2013 Intl. Journal of Social Robotics , pp. 1-17   article
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Rosenthal-von der Pütten, A. M. and Krämer, N. C. and Becker-Asano, C. and Ogawa, K. and Nishio, S. and Ishiguro, H.},
      title = {The uncanny in the wild. Analysis of unscripted human-android interaction in the field},
      journal = {Intl. Journal of Social Robotics},
      year = {2013},
      pages = {1-17},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12369-013-0198-7}
    }
    					
    Scheel, C.N.; Kleim, B.; Schmitz, J.; Becker-Asano, C.; Sun, D.; Nebel, B. & Tuschen-Caffier, B. Psychophysiologische Belastungsreaktivität nach einem simulierten Feuer in einer Parkgarage 2012 Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie
    Vol. 41 (3) , pp. 180-189  
    article
    Abstract: Background: Usually, different behaviors for coping with emergencies are assessed in retrospective and are difficult to compare due to numerous differences in emergency situations. Virtual Reality (VR) scenarios allow the assessment of behavior and psychophysiological parameters during the stressful event, and permit standardized repetitions of one incident. Objective: The aim of our study was the development of a new VR emergency scenario (fire in an underground parking lot) and to test whether it induces psychological and physiological stress reactions. Methods: During the experiment the emotional and psychophysiological experiences were measured several times. Results: The VR scenario caused subjective as well as physiological changes that are typical for stress reactions. Conclusions: Therefore the scenario seems to be useful to simulate coping behavior in emergencies. Limitations of the VR concerning clinical implications are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{
      author = {Scheel, C. N. and Kleim, B. and Schmitz, J. and Becker-Asano, C. and Sun, D. and Nebel, B. and Tuschen-Caffier, B.},
      title = {Psychophysiologische Belastungsreaktivität nach einem simulierten Feuer in einer Parkgarage},
      journal = {Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {180--189},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1026/1616-3443/a000154}
    }
    					
    Sommer, N.; Krämer, N.; Kopp, S. & Becker, C. Keep smiling! An embodied agent's impact on user's evaluation and smiling behaviour 2008 29th Intl. Congress of Psychology   inproceedings virtual humans
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Sommer, N. and Krämer, N.C. and Kopp, S. and Becker, C.},
      title = {Keep smiling! An embodied agent's impact on user's evaluation and smiling behaviour},
      booktitle = {29th Intl. Congress of Psychology},
      year = {2008}
    }
    					
    Tolksdorf, J.; Becker-Asano, C. & Kopp, S. Do You Know How I Feel? Evaluating Emotional Display of Primary and Secondary Emotions 2008 Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA 08) , pp. 548-549   inproceedings virtual humans
    Abstract: In this paper we report on an empirical study on how well different facial expressions of primary and secondary emotions [2] can be recognized from the face of our emotional virtual human Max [1]. Primary emotions like happiness are more primitive, onto-genetically earlier types of emotions, which are expressed by direct mapping on basic emotion display; secondary emotions like relief or gloating are considered cognitively more elaborated emotions and require a more subtle rendition. In order to validate the design of our virtual agent, which entails devising facial expressions for both kinds of emotion, we tried to find answers to the questions: How well can emotions be read from a virtual agent’s face by human observers? Are there differences in the recognizability between more primitve primary and more cognitively elaborated secondary emotions?
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Tolksdorf, J. and C. Becker-Asano and Kopp, S.},
      title = {Do You Know How I Feel? Evaluating Emotional Display of Primary and Secondary Emotions},
      booktitle = {Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVA 08)},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {548-549},
      url = {http://www.becker-asano.de/IVA08_DoYouKnowHowIFeel.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85483-8_83}
    }
    					
    Tuschen-Caffier, B.; Kleim, B.; Becker-Asano, C.; Sun, D.; Nebel, B. & Scheel, C. Bewältigungsverhalten in virtuellen Notfallsituationen 2011 7. Workshop Kongress für Psychologie und Psychotherapie (poster)  inproceedings
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{
      author = {Tuschen-Caffier, B. and Kleim, B. and Becker-Asano, C. and Sun, D. and Nebel, B. and Scheel, C.},
      title = {Bewältigungsverhalten in virtuellen Notfallsituationen},
      booktitle = {7. Workshop Kongress für Psychologie und Psychotherapie},
      year = {2011},
      note = {poster}
    }
    					

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